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Navigation systems have proven to be quite useful for many drivers. This is primarily because navigation systems for vehicles has the capacity to provide drivers with the most recent and updated information on the various roads and the various traffic conditions. And in that way, cars and vehicles can simply steer clear of roads that are heavily congested with traffic. In the process, car navigation systems help drivers save on time and on gas.

Now, there is yet another new car navigation device sent out to the market. This one is from Clarion and it is an in-car navigation device which runs on Windows Automotive. Windows Automotive is actually based on the Windows CE 5.0. This new in-car navigation system is named the NAX963HD. It has got a 30 GB hard drive to provide you with ample map data. It is not bulky for it just around an inch thick giving you more space. You see, you can simply stash this device just right beneath your seat.

If you are planning on purchasing this device along with some Volvo Universal parts, you might want to think about it first. You see, you still would have to import this device straight from Europe for it is still not yet for sale in the United States. And it also holds a tag price of around US$3,200 at that. Plus shipping and handling of course. However, if you think that this is just worth that much, then of course, go right ahead.

Anyhow, according to Clarion, this device is actually capable of connecting to any vehicle’s audio or video entertainment system display. In fact, Clarion further states that this new navigation device could be used with the MAX668RVD which is also from the company. You see, a combination of these new devices, the driver would be able to receive verbal instructions straight right out of them. The navigation unit also has a GPS receiver that is able to support twelve channels. However, if you are thinking about the specifications and the memory of the device, this has yet to be disclosed by the company.

The OSI model includes seven layers. The basic principles that were applied to arrive at the seven layers are as follows:

1)When different level of abstraction is needed a layer should be created.
2)Each layer must follow a well defined function.
3)The role of each layer should be preferred with an eye towards defining internationally standardized protocols.
4)The layer interfaces should be selected to reduce the information flow across the interfaces.

The OSI model itself is not network architecture because in each layer it does not define the exact services and protocols to be used. It just tells function of each layer. However, ISO has also created standard for all the layers, although these are not part of the reference model itself. Each one has been defined as separate International standards.

Different layers of ISO OSI model are as follows

1) Physical Layer
The physical layer is related with delivering raw bits over a communication channel. The design issues have to do with making sure that when one side sends a 1 bit, it is received as a 1 bit by the other side but not as a 0 bit. The design issues here largely related with mechanical, electrical and procedural interfaces and the physical communication channel which lies below the physical layer.

2) Data Link layer
The important function of the data link layer is to take raw transmission facility and deliver it into a line that appears free of undetected transmission error to the network layer. It achieves this task by having the sender break the input data up into data frames then transmit the frames sequentially and process the acknowledgement frames sent back by the receiver. Since the physical layer takes and delivers a stream of bits without any concern to meaning or structure it is data link layer’s function to create and determine frame boundaries. This can be achieved by attaching special bit patterns to the start and end of the frame. If in the data these bits appear accidentally, special care must be taken to ensure these patterns are not incorrectly interpreted as frame delimiters.

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vehicle tracking system is an electronic device installed in a vehicle to enable the owner or a third party to track the vehicle's location. Most modern vehicle tracking systems use Global Positioning System (GPS) modules for accurate location of the vehicle. Many systems also combine a communications component such as cellular or satellite transmitters to communicate the vehicle’s location to a remote user. Vehicle information can be viewed on electronic maps via the Internet or specialized software.
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